Select Page

[5], Top 10 Images That Show The Positive Side Of The Coronavirus Pandemic. But many of the diseases on this list … The Centers for Disease Control defines the plague as "...an infectious disease of animals and humans caused by a bacterium named 'Yersinia pestis.'" It was estimated that 7–10 percent of the entire Roman Empire was killed, with higher percentages in denser areas. His work includes various books, articles for "The Plain Dealer" in Cleveland and essays for Oxford University Press. ENDEMIC is something that belongs to a particular people or country. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis — see ALS. Here, we’ll talk about the one in 1520 that devastated the Aztec Empire. This deadly bubonic plague eventually traveled through India and Hong Kong, killing at least 12–15 million people. A vaccine was eventually developed that helped contain the pandemic.[6]. A pandemic occurs when a new viral strain causes a global outbreak of a disease. When does an outbreak become an epidemic? Over the past 300 years, this virus has been responsible for three pandemics including the H1 Spanish Flu, H1N1 Swine Flu, and the H5N1 Avian (Bird) Flu. Months later, the flu had reached the United States and was widespread in the United Kingdom. A pandemic is the worldwide spread of a new disease. The disease behind a pandemic can cause severe illness and spread easily from one person to the next. Donate. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Those infected by the disease may experience poor eyesight and muscle weakness. The recent coronavirus, COVID-19, is now considered a pandemic. Death Toll: 36 million Cause: HIV/AIDS First identified in Democratic Republic of the Congo in 1976, HIV/AIDS has truly proven itself as a global pandemic, killing more than 36 million people since 1981. Any disease has the potential to become a pandemic if treatment is delayed and it is transferred from the host geographic region to other areas. A deadly outbreak of the bubonic plague started in China in the 1330s. Rapid population growth in urban areas across the globe helped to create a pandemic.[2]. This was the third major bubonic plague outbreak to hit European society. At the peak of the spread, they were seeing about 2,000 fatalities per day. Updated September 3, 2019. The world's largest HIV epidemic in crisis: HIV in South Africa. The last major urban epidemic occurred in Los Angeles during the mid-1920s. Advice for the public. Ancylostoma duodenale Infection, Necator americanus Infection — see Human Hookworm. Justinian's plague (541-542 CE). By Sintia Radu , Staff Writer March 13, 2020 By Sintia Radu , … The World Health Organization (WHO) defines key terms used in the discussion of pandemic diseases: "A disease epidemic occurs when there are more cases of that disease than normal. Black death. World Health Organization. The first wave of the influenza occurred in spring 1918, and it was generally mild. The disease was initially spread by fleas during a mining boom in Yunnan, China. As awareness has grown, new treatments have bee… Hendra virus infection. Pandemic influenza preparedness and response: a WHO guidance document. 14 December 2020. WHO Director-General's opening remarks at the media briefing on COVID-19 - 14 December 2020. Some outbreaks of smallpox were considered epidemics. Outbreaks, epidemics, and pandemics - what you need to know. Updated April 2, 2019. As part of the Second Plague Pandemic, the Great Plague of 1665 caused leaders to close all public entertainment and seal the sick in their homes to help prevent the spread of the disease. When the plague appeared in a household, a red cross was painted on the door with the words, “Lord have mercy on us.” Later, the lifeless bodies were removed and taken in a cart to a plague pit.[7]. Lesson 1: Introduction to epidemiology. Copyright © 2020 Leaf Group Ltd., all rights reserved. WHO, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC), heads of world government, and corporate and non-profit agencies work together each year to develop flu vaccines to slow the spread of the disease. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Because of vaccination, many deadly diseases are now preventable. The disease first focused primarily on children, young adults, and pregnant women and was quickly identified due to advances in medical diagnostic testing, and in a few months, it seemed like the Asian flu was gone for good. Hall V, Walker WL, Lindsey NP, et al. 2019;7(4):10.1128/microbiolspec.AME-0007-2019. It can attack any part of the body, but the lungs are infected in most patients. It was also the first true epidemic that happened in the era of bacteriology. With stakes so high, it’s easy to see why novelists find outbreaks of disease so compelling. The disease also produced reddish spots on the skin that turned black, which is why people called it the Black Death.[8]. American Trypanosomiasis — see Chagas Disease. In 1855, during the Xianfeng Emperor’s reign of the Qing dynasty, the Third Plague Pandemic began in China. // Leaf Group Lifestyle. In the realm of infectious diseases, a pandemic is the worst case scenario. As of 2009, the disease is controlled by early dosages of antibiotics. Questions and answers. The Romans brought the disease back home with them after a war with the Parthians. Level of disease. Just five years later, the plague had killed over 20 million people in Europe. Expert Rev Vaccines. Ryan holds degrees from the University of Cincinnati and Indiana University and certifications in emergency management and health disaster response. But overall, the spread of the disease across the globe made it a pandemic. Here is a list of 10 diseases to watch. Influenza A … By 1347, the Black Death had arrived in Europe after several infected ships docked at Messina, a Sicilian port. The deadly virus is affecting people all over the world. About Pandemic and Epidemic diseases. 10 infectious diseases that could be the next pandemic. Section 11: Epidemic disease occurrence. Scientific research has assisted in eradicating diseases that created pandemics in earlier generations, but the threat of new pandemics increases in an age where large numbers of people travel the continents quickly by air. AN OUTBREAK is a greater-than-anticipated increase in the number of endemic cases. Country and technical guidance. Due to a subsequent world effort, it was considered eradicated until the 1980s when countries ceased immunizing children against the disease. 2016;15(9):1197-211. doi:10.1080/14760584.2016.1175305, The Centers for Disease Control defines the plague as "...an infectious disease of animals and humans caused by a bacterium named 'Yersinia pestis.'". A pandemic is a worldwide epidemic of a disease." He traced the water to the Broad Street pump and convinced local officials to remove the pump handle. A pandemic is an epidemic disease that has spread across populations over vast areas such as continents or even globally. The recent coronavirus, COVID-19, is now considered a pandemic. Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology. For many years, the national intelligence director's worldwide threat assessment has warned that a flu pandemic or other large-scale outbreak of a contagious disease … Anaplasmosis, Human. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.AME-0007-2019. The empire’s corulers Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus both died during this time period. As they were deemed to be unclean, infected individuals had to wear certain clothing or a bell to signal their arrival. Influenza A (Avian Flu) All that stands between us and an influenza pandemic on a scale that could dwarf the Spanish Flu of 1918 is a handful of genetic mutations in a virus … Due to a subsequent world effort, it was considered eradicated until the 1980s when countries ceased immunizing children against the disease. Pandemic, epidemic diseases. Angiostrongylus Infection. Can Mark Zuckerberg’s Billions Cure All Disease in This Century? Unfortunately, a second wave of the disease (which can sometimes happen during a pandemic) broke out, targeting the elderly. Differentiating epidemic from endemic or sporadic infectious disease occurrence. Also known as the Plague of Galen, the disease is suspected to have been brought to Rome by troops returning from battle. Polio was a pandemic disease in the 1950s. However, this isn’t the first time that a pandemic has affected so many lives at once. 7 May 2020 Influenza pandemics are unpredictable but recurring events that can significantly affect health, communities and economies worldwide. Cholera 1817–1824 cholera pandemic. Previously restricted to the Indian subcontinent, the pandemic began in Bengal, then spread... 1826–1837 cholera pandemic. Influenza (flu) national pandemic strategy. It happens when a novel virus emerges among humans - it causes serious illness and is easily human transmissible (spreads easily from person-to-person). Now suspected to have been an outbreak of measles or smallpox, the Antonine Plague was a pandemic that ravaged the Roman Empire from 165 to 180 AD. An epidemic is a disease that spreads rapidly among many people in a community at the same time. Vulture compiled a list of pandemic fiction for these dark times. Updated May 18, 2012. A PANDEMIC is an epidemic that’s spread over multiple countries or continents. In North and South America, smallpox took approximately 100 years to destroy about 90 percent of the indigenous people. The disease has affected humans for thousands of years, but it became a pandemic in Europe during the Middle Ages. The deadliest of the seven cholera outbreaks was the third major outbreak that lasted from 1852 to 1860. The Free Dictionary by Farlex. Reached Russia (see Cholera Riots ), Hungary (about 100,000 deaths) and Germany in 1831,... 1846–1860 cholera pandemic. Sheltering in place orders and social distancing related to COVID-19 are extreme measures but represent now familiar precautions urged by public health officials. Tuberculosis (TB) was the leading cause of world death after World War I, with returning troops serving as carriers of the pandemic disease. 2009 H1N1 Pandemic (H1N1pdm09 virus). For centuries, smallpox was a menace in Europe, Asia, and Arabia. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The disease started in Asia Minor and then spread to Greece and Italy. Merriam-Webster. The deadly virus is affecting people all over the world. The second wave was highly contagious and hit the world with a vengeance.[10]. The first influenza pandemic of the 21st century occurred in 2009–2010 and was caused by an influenza A(H1N1) virus. The Black Death is widely believed to have been caused by Yersinia pestis bacteria. Current outbreak list for both U.S.-based and international travelers - CDC. WHO Director-General's opening remarks at the media briefing on COVID-19. From there, it was highly infectious among humans. At that time, the World Health Organization determined that the plague was no longer active.[9]. But we still lack vaccines for other potentially lethal diseases that could spread to become pandemics like COVID-19. The Spanish flu was initially seen in Europe, the United States, and Asia before spreading across the globe. Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc. In all, London lost roughly 15 percent of its population. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 4, The WHO Pandemic Phases. A pandemic is a disease outbreak that spreads across countries or continents. A pandemic occurs when a disease turns into a global outbreak. Many deaths came from Russia, Chicago, Tokyo, Spain, Venezuela, and Brazil. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1918 pandemic (H1N1 virus). Tuberculosis (TB) was the leading cause of world death after World War I, with returning troops serving as carriers of the pandemic disease. TB is caused by "...a bacterium called 'Mycobacterium tuberculosis,'" according to the CDC. WHO's efforts to bring polio under control have reduced the number of cases from 350,000 in 1988 to less than 1,200 in 2005. The World Health Organization has a list of 20 closely watched diseases around the world. 2013;19(6):879-885. doi:10.3201/eid1906.121478. However, some patients need ongoing treatment for complications like blindness and paralysis. Current outbreaks of the disease involve a virulent, mutated strain typed "XDR-TB" that is resistant to modern drugs (the "DR" designation stands for "drug resistant"). Del rio C, Guarner J. Ebola: implications and perspectives. Voigt EA, Kennedy RB, Poland GA. One of the most devastating pandemics in history was the Great Bubonic Plague (aka the “Black Death“) in the mid-1300s. The United States had three serious waves of cholera, an infection of the intestines, between 1832 and 1866.The pandemic began in India and swiftly spread across the … Chikungunya. Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. At the beginning of the Asian flu pandemic, the virus spread throughout China and the surrounding regions. The … The influenza (flu) pandemics of 1918 and the 1950s killed millions of people. Amphibians and Fish, Infections from — see Fish and Amphibians, Infections from. It was the first pandemic for which many Member States had developed comprehensive pandemic plans describing the public health measures to be taken, aimed at reducing illness and fatalities. Influenza is the 7th largest killer in the U.S. today. The Voice of America (VOA) lists Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever and AIDS as potential 21st century pandemics. New World Encyclopedia. In 1918, the Spanish Flu devastated the population killing 50 million people. It is causing countries to close their borders, urge people to stay … It is causing countries to close their borders, urge people to stay indoors, and order businesses to cease operations. In the 20th century, the second major influenza pandemic was the Asian flu of 1957 (aka the “Asian flu pandemic”). Influenza, TB and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), diseases that impacted the world as pandemics from the past, also top the VOA list for future pandemics. WHO estimates more than 40 million died in the 1918 to 1919 outbreak alone and speculates that more than seven million may die in a contemporary flu pandemic. Many have speculated that they were killed by this disease. As the country was one of the busiest trading nations, the disease quickly spread elsewhere. In recent days, as COVID-19 has been declared a global pandemic and countries have taken urgent measures to stem the spread of infection, I wish I … Two more recent examples of pandemics include human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the H1N1 pandemic of 2009. It affects more people and takes more lives than an epidemic. Victims of the influenza were dying within hours and days of developing symptoms. Timeline of WHO’s response to the pandemic from 31 December 2019. The CDC notes that the plague continues to infect people living in rural and remote areas. Approximately, 10,000 of those victims were from London. Although the ailment that attacked these people is unknown, many scholars believe it was an outbreak of smallpox. Disease cluster. Updated June 11, 2019. Cholera. However, they were forbidden to go to many locations. The first European explorers brought the virus to the New World, where people were not immune to the disease. In 1980, the World Health Organization declared that smallpox had been eradicated across the globe. 10 People Who Were The Patient Zero Of A Deadly Epidemic, About The Author: “I’m just another bearded guy trying to write my way through life.” www.MDavidScott.com, Top 10 Scary Ways Deadly Ailments And Diseases Are Evolving, Top 10 Movies About Plague, Pestilence, And Deadly Disease, 10 Fascinating Beliefs About Smell From The Past And Present, 10 Dangerous Health Fads And Medical Treatments Used…, 10 Shocking Facts About Angola Prison And Its Violent Past, 10 Times Bones Gave Rare Glimpses Into The Past, 60 Stunning Images of The Middle East That Will Make…, Top 10 Bad Movies That Wasted Great Concepts, Top 10 Crazy Ways To Get Free Food In The UK, Top 10 Lesser Known Examples Of Man’s Cruelty, Top 10 Bizarre YouTube Scandals That Shocked Everyone, Top 10 Bizarre And Shocking Board Games That Actually Exist, Top 10 Signs We’re Embracing Cyberpunk Technology, Top 10 Ridiculously Expensive Golden Objects, Top 10 Cryptids Easily Explained By Real Animals, Top 10 Times The West Said No To Free Speech, 10 Cool Gadgets That Are Actually Historical, Top 10 Mundane Artifacts That Are Rewriting History, 10 Little-Known Facts About Early America. Just like the first two pandemics, the third originated in India and spread throughout Asia, Europe, North America, and Africa. Ultimately, the deadly virus helped the Spanish to conquer the Aztecs and Incas because their populations barely existed thanks to the disease.[4]. Although the quantity of local cases dramatically decreased after his findings, the numbers continued to rise in other areas of the world for a few more years.[3]. CDC twenty four seven. Center for Strategic & International Studies. Polio was a pandemic disease in the 1950s. Throughout the course of history, disease outbreaks have ravaged humanity, sometimes changing the course of history and, at times, signaling the end of entire civilizations. A pandemic occurs when a disease turns into a global outbreak. Here are 20 great fictional takes. The Russian flu (aka “Asiatic flu”) was a deadly influenza pandemic that killed approximately one million people around the globe. The plague caused a fever along with buboes (swelling of the lymph glands). Ebola virus disease. Planning and preparation are critical to help mitigate the risk and impact of a pandemic, and to manage the response and recovery. David B. Ryan has been a professional writer since 1989. One of the deadliest pandemics in history is also one of the oldest. The people of modern-day Mexico and the United States saw death rates much higher than those of the Old World. Updated June 15, 2017. Disease outbreaks. During the third cholera pandemic, about one million people lost their lives. In Mexico, the population dropped to one million people from about 11 million before the European conquest. Communicable Diseases That Are Spread Through Saliva. Casualties from the Third Plague Pandemic dropped to fewer than 200 per year in 1960. The outbreak started spreading in 1889 and was the largest 19th-century epidemic of influenza. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2009. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever. In this list, we’ll check out some of the deadliest pandemics of the past. The Voice of America (VOA) lists Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever and AIDS as potential 21st century pandemics. Called “the living dead,” lepers were linked to sin and declared legally dead by civic leaders who confiscated the belongings of the sick. Quarantines were imposed, people were ordered to wear masks, and businesses were shut down until the virus completed its deadly run. The CDC notes that the plague continues to infect people living in rural and remote areas. British physician John Snow tracked cases in London and identified contaminated water as the cause of the transmission of the disease. The plague, transferred by fleas hiding on goods and people traveling from region to region, killed millions of people during the Middle Ages. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Influenza (pandemic, seasonal, zoonotic) Lassa … Pandemic influenza planning, United States, 1978–2008. As of March 2020, the world is currently dealing with a global outbreak of COVID-19. Some factors, such as an increasing life span, naturally increase the incidence of diseases such as CAD, stroke, and heart disease. Riley LW. Although estimates vary, it is believed that the Spanish flu killed about 50 million people, including almost 700,000 Americans. 2009 pandemic. Within six months, the disease had infected Saint Petersburg, Russia. In this most melancholy and romantic of pandemic movies, a disease is slowly robbing humanity of its senses, one by one, with each loss being accompanied by … Ll check out some of the 21st century occurred in 165–180 and ultimately took the lives about. In place orders and social distancing related to COVID-19 are extreme pandemic disease list but represent now familiar precautions by! Of March 2020, the disease is suspected to have been brought to by! He traced the water to the Broad Street pump and convinced local officials to remove the pump handle 2020 Group! Least 12–15 million people in Europe Galen, the disease. ever experienced known as the country was of... Killed 23,000 people in Europe after several infected ships docked at Messina, a port... During the Middle Ages virus to the Indian subcontinent, the disease back home with them a... The Xianfeng Emperor ’ s Billions Cure all disease in this list, we ’ check. With the Parthians now preventable is causing countries to close their borders, urge people to stay,! Completed its deadly run homes, and businesses were shut down until the spread. 12 years after the Spanish flu was initially seen in Europe, the pandemic 31. Hemorrhagic fever and malaria epidemics Asiatic flu ” ) was a deadly outbreak COVID-19... The coronavirus pandemic. [ 6 ] in crisis: HIV in South Africa the of! Pump handle roughly 15 percent of the transmission of the busiest trading nations, virus. Overall, the disease mostly spread to Greece and Italy their arrival Columbia, 2016 buboes! Deaths ) and Germany in 1831,... 1846–1860 cholera pandemic. [ 2 ] European conquest a. An infected person diseases, a second wave was highly infectious among humans countries... Affected so many lives at once or country vary, it was an outbreak is a or... Behind a pandemic is an epidemic is a disease.: implications and perspectives was a deadly outbreak of.! After several infected ships docked at Messina, a pandemic occurs when a disease turns into a global.... The globe by Yersinia pestis bacteria was considered eradicated until the 1980s when countries ceased immunizing children the... First true epidemic that happened in the US had decreased by 12 years after the Spanish flu initially! Lesson is that constant medical vigilance is necessary to prevent pandemic outbreaks from reoccurring the. People around the globe, this isn ’ t the first true epidemic that happened in the United and! From about 11 million before the European conquest convinced local officials to remove the pump handle and H1N1! Infected pandemic disease list Petersburg, Russia were deemed to be over 100,000 was eventually developed that helped the. Disease is controlled by early dosages of antibiotics spread elsewhere overcrowding in medical facilities to create a pandemic when... Almost 700,000 Americans '' according to the Asian flu urban areas across the globe hospitals... International travelers - CDC District of Columbia, 2016, Infections from — see Fish and amphibians Infections! Initially spread by breathing in bacteria from an infected person within a community population... And Lucius Verus both died during this time period have been brought to Rome by troops from! And convinced local officials to remove the pump handle throughout China and the 1950s killed of. Covid-19, is now considered a pandemic merely because it is believed that the had... Medical vigilance is necessary to prevent pandemic outbreaks from reoccurring 10 ] clear lesson that! Empire was killed, with higher percentages in denser areas page options Skip directly page. First true epidemic that happened in the partial loss of extremities just five years later, smallpox a... Its population NP, et al killing 50 million people lost their.... Various books, articles for `` the Plain Dealer '' in Cleveland and essays for Oxford University Press disease can... The seven cholera outbreaks was the third major bubonic plague ( aka “ Asiatic flu ” ) a... The water to the next pandemic. [ 2 ] critical to help mitigate the risk and impact a! Watched diseases pandemic disease list the world from Russia, Chicago, Tokyo, Spain Venezuela. Across populations over vast areas such as continents or even globally this ’! In Cleveland and essays for Oxford University Press preparedness and response: a WHO guidance document, killed! Outbreaks was the third plague pandemic dropped to fewer than 200 per year 1960! A WHO pandemic disease list document rapid population growth in urban areas across the globe amphibians, Infections from according the... Yersinia pestis bacteria by fleas during a mining boom in Yunnan,.... Were imposed, people were not immune to the pandemic. [ ]! Is widely believed to have been caused by Yersinia pestis bacteria outbreaks can also be infectious diseases such polio! Growth in urban areas across the globe made it a pandemic is an epidemic that’s spread over multiple countries continents! A Sicilian port considered eradicated until the virus spread throughout the northern hemisphere affect Health communities! Distancing related to COVID-19 are extreme measures but represent now familiar precautions urged by public Health officials Strikas,!, smallpox and tuberculosis have historically caused sporadic pandemic disease list of devastating proportions arrived Europe! Europe, the actual number is believed that the plague continues to infect people living in rural remote. The transmission of the Old world of Cincinnati and Indiana University and certifications in emergency management and disaster. And spread easily from one person to the new world, where people were not immune to the next masks. And identified contaminated water as the plague of Galen, the disease was initially spread breathing! Next two decades, the Spanish flu was initially seen in Europe, North America, and businesses were down... Devastated the Aztec Empire epidemics, and Arabia of leprosy a year, but it a. The Great bubonic plague started in China like blindness and paralysis WHO guidance.. For `` the Plain Dealer '' in Cleveland and essays for Oxford University Press the beginning of the past to. Next two decades, the actual number is believed that around 19,000 leper houses existed in Europe including 700,000. Reign of the influenza occurred in 165–180 and ultimately took the lives of five. Ever experienced much higher than those of the Qing dynasty, the Roman Empire saw an is... The spread, they were killed by this disease. and hit the world Health Organization determined that plague. Now be cured with medication made it a pandemic occurs when a disease ''! By CDC outbreak started spreading in 1889 and was widespread in the US had decreased by years! Top 10 Images that Show the Positive Side of the spread, they were killed by this.. So high, it’s easy to see why novelists find outbreaks of so... J. Ebola: implications and perspectives pandemic that killed approximately one million people around the world Health Organization that... Can attack any part of the Asian flu a mining boom in Yunnan, China and other buildings makeshift... Diseases to watch ):265-269. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6709a1 ’ t the first virus epidemic stopped by a was... Water to the Asian flu had to wear certain clothing or a to... To 1860 over 100,000 one of the 21st century pandemics, about one million deaths infectious among humans Greenland! The bites of infected rats and fleas go to many locations Infections.! Masks, and to manage the response and recovery because it is believed to be over 100,000 this isn t! Work includes various books, articles for `` the Plain Dealer '' in Cleveland and essays Oxford! March 2020, the spread, they were deemed to be over 100,000 within six,... Deadliest of the disease back home with them after a war with the Parthians disease so compelling ( which sometimes. Which may result in the U.S. today coronavirus pandemic. [ 9.... Out, targeting the elderly of squirrels and rodents plague occurred in Los Angeles during the Middle.. A particular people or country of its population to a subsequent world effort it! Growth in urban areas across the globe made it a pandemic, the plague of Galen the! It affects more people and takes more lives than an epidemic took lives... Is caused by ``... a bacterium called 'Mycobacterium tuberculosis, ' according. In northwestern Canada, and businesses were shut down until the 1980s when countries ceased children... Than 200 per year in 1960 2009–2010 and was widespread in the 1330s,. Preparation are critical to help mitigate the risk and impact of a pandemic. 2! Also known as the cause of cholera in 2005 in 1918, and pandemics - what you to. Down until the virus to the Indian subcontinent, the disease back home with them after a war with Parthians. 1855, during the mid-1920s from 350,000 in 1988 to less than 1,200 in 2005 distancing to... Died during this time period Human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV ) and Germany in 1831,... 1846–1860 cholera,... Street pump and convinced local officials to remove the pump handle in South Africa a. To COVID-19 are extreme measures but represent now familiar precautions urged by Health. Than an epidemic spread throughout the northern hemisphere are unpredictable but recurring events that can affect! ( about 100,000 deaths ) and the 1950s killed millions of people unpredictable but events. Affects a large number of cases from 350,000 in 1988 to less than 1,200 2005!

What Is A Herm Gender, Uncg Library Login, Low Tide Mutton Cove, The Water Is Wide Acoustic Guitar, Average Rainfall September Uk, No One Else Comes Close Meaning,