These antibodies may come from the pooled and purified blood products of immune people or from non-human immune animals, such as horses. The adaptive immune system, also referred as the acquired immune system, is a subsystem of the immune system that is composed of specialized, systemic cells and processes that eliminates pathogens by preventing their growth. These antigens are different from those on the surface of bacteria or on the surface of virus-infected host cells ("non-self" or "foreign" antigens).  On a later encounter with the same antigen, these memory cells quickly differentiate into effector cells, dramatically shortening the time required to mount an effective response. Part A Which of the following is an example of artificially acquired passive immunity? Artificial Passive immunity can be induced artificially when antibodies are given as a medication to a nonimmune individual. Historically, infectious disease has been the leading cause of death in the human population.  Instead of the classical antibodies and T cell receptors, these animals possess a large array of molecules called variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs for short) that, like the antigen receptors of jawed vertebrates, are produced from only a small number (one or two) of genes. HIV is able to subvert the immune system by specifically attacking the CD4+ T cells, precisely the cells that could drive the clearance of the virus, but also the cells that drive immunity against all other pathogens encountered during an organism's lifetime.. Generation of responses that are tailored to maximally eliminate specific pathogens or pathogen-infected cells. Myriad receptors are produced through a process known as clonal selection. Passive memory is usually short-term, lasting between a few days and several months. Dendritic cells, B-cells, and macrophages are equipped with special "co-stimulatory" ligands recognized by co-stimulatory receptors on T cells, and are termed professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs). A COVID-19 Prophecy: Did Nostradamus Have a Prediction About This Apocalyptic Year? These observations raise questions about mechanisms that favor the survival of most children in Africa while allowing some to develop potentially lethal infections. One of the pathways is siRNA in which long double stranded RNA is cut into pieces that serve as templates for protein complex Ago2-RISC that finds and degrades complementary RNA of the virus. O An infant acquires immunity to some diseases from his mother through breast milk. Several T cells subgroups can be activated by professional APCs, and each type of T cell is specially equipped to deal with each unique toxin or microbial pathogen. In other cases it does not provide lifetime protection; for example, chickenpox. When B cells and T cells are activated some become memory B cells and some memory T cells. Similar to Tregs, Tfh cells also play a role in immunological tolerance as an abnormal expansion of Tfh cell numbers can lead to unrestricted autoreactive antibody production causing severe systemic autoimmune disorders.  Once a B cell encounters its cognate (or specific) antigen (and receives additional signals from a helper T cell (predominately Th2 type)), it further differentiates into an effector cell, known as a plasma cell.. Antibodies (also known as immunoglobulin, Ig), are large Y-shaped proteins used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects. Passive immunity usually involves a transfusion of antibodies tailored to defeat an infectious agent. Although the hallmarks are present the mechanisms are different from those in vertebrates. Artificially acquired passive immunity is a short-term immunization achieved by the transfer of antibodies, which can be administered in several forms; as human or animal blood plasma or serum, as pooled human immunoglobulin for intravenous (IVIG) or intramuscular (IG) use, as high-titer human IVIG or IG from immunized donors or from donors recovering from the disease, and as monoclonal antibodies (MAb). Active immunity is the result of a patient's immune system being exposed directly to a weakened or dead form of the pathogen and reacting by developing immunity to the agent.  Follicular helper T (Tfh) cells are another distinct population of effector CD4+ T cells that develop from naive T cells post-antigen activation. For a long time it was thought that insects and other invertebrates possess only innate immune system. Attenuated microbes are living, non-virulent strains of a microbe. 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